Curriculum Policy

Curriculum Principles

Academic excellence is the core and vital aspect of learning and teaching at Kopkop College. We acknowledge that students are ambitious and enthusiastic in all that they do. In support of this principle, lessons are carefully structured and planned to satisfy this thirst for intellectual inspiration. 

Teachers know their pupils as individuals and deliver learning programs which provide real challenge as well as broaden students’ skills, knowledge and experience.

As problem solving in Mathematics, Science and other subjects require higher levels of thinking, the challenge Kopkop College accepts is that students must be taught to develop proficiency in the English Language. This will also enable them to construct well written poems, literatures and construct complex explanation of cause and effect.  

Kopkop College aims to give every student an excellent, well-balanced education, developing their intellectual, creative and physical abilities to the full. A significant number of the students are able, gifted and talented in at least one and often several subject areas, and our provision nourishes and develops this potential.

As part of strengthening our drive in supporting students to excel, Kopkop College will reward students who demonstrate exceptional talent and ability in all subject areas. Their progress must be closely monitored to ensure that they continue to achieve their full potential both within the curriculum and via the wide range of enrichment opportunities, which they will have access to.

Kopkop College Curriculum Principles are based on our Vision, Mission and educational values and beliefs such as:

  • Providing an education starting with emphasis in basic skills in English and Mathematics;
  • Entering school at age 3 or 4 at Early Childhood stage
  • citizenship – roles, rights and responsibilities in society;
  • law and order – good governance; and
  • Lifelong learning – applied
  • Achieving academic excellence in all subjects
  • Learn to Listen and Listen to Learn.

These curriculum principles are relevant to all subjects and have been grouped into three broad categories.

  1. Our way of life
  2. Integral human development
  3. Teaching and learning

1. Our Way of Life

a. Cultural relevance – traditional life, our customs, traditions and values;

Cultural relevance focuses on the richness and diversity of Papua New Guinean cultures and languages. These cultures and languages are examined within their own unique contexts and within historical, contemporary, and future realities. Our traditional life is based on a holistic perspective that integrates the past, present and future.

Papua New Guineans are the original inhabitants of Papua New Guinea and lived in sophisticated, organized, and self-sufficient societies. Our customs and traditions constitute a cultural mosaic, rich and diverse, including different cultural groups. Our customs and traditions are unique as featured in the Kopkop College Curriculum. This curriculum should enable students to:

  • demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the values, customs, and traditions of Papua New Guinea;
  • demonstrate an understanding and appreciation for Papua New Guinean unique communication systems;
  • demonstrate recognition of the importance of the relationship between Papua New Guineans and the world;
  • recognise dimensions of Papua New Guinean art as a form of cultural expression;
  • give examples of the diversity and functioning of the social, economic, and political systems of Papua New Guineans in traditional and contemporary societies; and

b. Bilingual Education

Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally and ethnically diverse countries in the world with over 800 different spoken languages. While it is naturally accepted that students learn best when they use their own language in ways that are meaningful, practical, and relevant to them, current practice noted with the Elementary Education in Papua New Guinea has had some bad experiences.

This means that students enrolling at Kopkop College starting Early Childhood will begin learning in English and may within the context of bilingual education translate English into their own vernacular. This language may be one of the 800 vernacular languages or a lingua franca (Motu, Tok Pisin). They will use the language to communicate ideas to others, learn to read and listen to other people’s ideas in areas of the curriculum.

Subjects at Primary level are taught in English, and for purposes of the development of their vernacular skills, lessons can be used to treat important concepts in vernacular. When students develop fluent literacy skills in English language, they can learn to transfer these skills to the learning and development of another language. If students do not develop their fluency in English, it will reduce their general learning and competence of another language. Improved language skills help problem solving and the development of critical thinking skills.

Primary students should be able to speak and write in many different situations, and for many different purposes, using English and where required in a bilingual situation, using their vernaculars.

This principle also provides for the continuing growth of our cultural identities through the expansion and enhancement of vernacular skills and activities in Early Childhood and Primary level of schooling. It is through language that many important aspects of our country’s diverse cultures are transferred from one generation to the next. Our College curriculum will ensure that this is provided for;

Bilingual education will enable students to:

  • develop effective communication skills in both vernaculars and English;
  • acquire better comprehension of English;
  • make use of their vernacular language as a tool for learning English; and
  • Establish better relationships between their schools and communities than if they had been in an English only program.

2. Integral Human Development

Facilitating integral human development.

The Philosophy of Education for Papua New Guinea as described in the Matane Report acknowledges the National Goals and Directive Principles in the National Constitution, as embedded in integral human development:

  • integral in the sense that all aspects of a person are important;
  • human in the sense that social relationships are basic; and
  • Development in the sense that every individual has the potential to grow in knowledge, wisdom, understanding, skill, and goodness.

Integral human development is the ultimate goal for every person who receives an education and

  • will result in every person being dynamically involved in the process of freeing himself or herself from every form of domination and oppression so that each individual will have the opportunity to develop as an integrated person in relationship with For Kopkop College this means, the curriculum must integrated and maximized, socialization, participation, liberation and equality;
  • is based on an awareness of human potential and the willingness to develop this potential so that each individual can solve his or her own problems, contribute to the common good of society and maintain, promote and improve earning and living; and
  • presumes the goodness and dignity of every It calls for the promotion of self and mutual respect, a sense of self-worth and self-discipline, and a sense of responsibility for one self and others.

Papua New Guinea is a rapidly changing society and faces many challenges. To face these confidently, Kopkop College will develop students who strive to become an integrated person who will work with others to create a better community.

The process of integral human development requires the curriculum at Kopkop College to be in response to individuals who desire and can:

  • identify their basic human needs;
  • analyze situations in terms of these needs;
  • see these needs in the context of spiritual and social values of the community, and
  • take responsible action in co-operation with

The success of a Kopkop College Curriculum requires the integrated involvement of all the agents of education such as the home, church, school, and community. Within this curriculum, the teachers must integrate knowledge, skills, and attitudes to allow students to achieve the desired outcomes of integral human development.

A. The right to healthy living

The health status of Papua New Guinea is very low. All citizens have a right to a healthy life such as clean water, a nutritious diet, improved sanitation, appropriate shelter and better local health services. Students need to learn attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them become productive, healthy and content citizens of Papua New Guinea. They need to be given a set of skills that will enable them to improve their own and their community’s health in order to improve the health status of Papua New Guinea.

The Kopkop College curriculum will ensure that students have the opportunity to develop essential knowledge, skills and values about healthy living. This approach will start in early childhood grades and continue throughout primary school. Each student must understand the social and ethical values for unhealthy ways of living and doing things.

B. Nation building and national unity

Our nation is young and there is still a great deal of nation building to be done. Students at Kopkop College will be given the skills to undertake this task and participate in nationally organized events. Kopkop College curriculum will enable them to understand how Papua New Guinean societies work, and how they can be a useful part of it.

Students at Kopkop College should learn that they have a place in Papua New Guinea and that Papua New Guinea has a place in the world as a whole. They will become more able to help Papua New Guinea develop a national identity as one nation if they learn to:

  • work together with tolerance;
  • respect one another, their traditional ways, and resolve problems peacefully;
  • respect and act in the spirit of the National Constitution;
·         recognise their capabilities and develop their own talents;
  • participate in the development of the national community; and
  • protect and safe guard the national wealth and resources, and consider how they will contribute to national development.

C. Citizenship

The Kopkop College Curriculum will provide students with the opportunity to learn about:

  • political activities, legal assemblies and associations;
  • problems associated with inhumane treatment and forced labor, and the need for the freedom of employment;
  • the importance of the freedom of conscience, of expression, and of information;
  • freedom of movement and protection of privacy;
  • meaningful participation in and access to representation in all levels of government, and how to take part in nation building;
  • how benefits and services can be equitably distributed;
  • the need and importance of equal participation by women citizens in all areas of life; and
  • Maximizing their participation in every aspect of national

The students will use this knowledge in many different ways, as useful, active and law abiding citizens.

D. Sustainability

The natural environment of Papua New Guinea is as diverse as its cultures. It is obvious that this natural and physical environment is under threat from rapid population expansion and misuse of resources such as over logging, abuses associated with mining, over fishing, dynamiting reefs, dumping toxic wastes. Our diverse cultures are also under threat from over exploitation and commercialization of sacred cultural practices.

Our cultural traditions are not being handed down from generation to generation. Kopkop College curriculum will guide students to appreciate, respect, and value their natural environment, cultures, customs and traditions. It will give them the skills and knowledge to identify problems, issues, and to take appropriate actions so as to sustain these aspects of life in Papua New Guinea.

E. Catering for diversity – Gender

Gender refers to and means one is a woman or a man. Gender also refers to those behaviors and attitudes that are culturally accepted as ways of being a woman (femininity) and of being a man (masculinity). Addressing gender issues goes well beyond ensuring that females have the same opportunities as males to receive an education.

A person’s experiences will determine the way they understand and make sense of the world. Gender is also culturally determined. In Papua New Guinea, there is a need for sensitivity to local cultural practices and values, with respect to traditional roles for males and females. Kopkop College Curriculum will provide students with subjects, resources, and activities or experiences that value and appreciate the needs to observe gender equality.

Generally females are a disadvantaged group in Papua New Guinea considered of lesser status and have less recognition in gender equality. Violence against females is widely acknowledged as a serious problem as indicators of human development show including females having lower quality of life than males and lower literacy rates and income levels than males.

The Kopkop College Curriculum will provide students with opportunities to consider these problems and establish strategies for addressing gender issues. These will include girls’ and women’s experiences in gender biasness, gender disparity representative of a diversity of cultures in our communities. It should also include subjects that will meet the different needs, interests and learning styles of girls and boys. It should enable students to understand that a person’s gender is genetically determined therefore it must contribute to promoting equality amongst people in that;

  • play an active role in making meaning from their experiences, and in deciding to adopt or reject ways of behaving; and
  • Challenge stereotypes.

F. Catering for diversity – Students with special needs

Many students have special needs. These special needs may include those who are gifted, or disadvantaged — physically, emotionally, and intellectually. Students may display a combination of these needs. Kopkop College Curriculum will ensure that all subjects provide students with equal opportunities to excel and achieve their full potentials. As part of the college intention to cater for special needs, teachers will provide these students with lesson activities that are related to the specific disabilities.

3. Teaching and Learning

Students learn in different ways. Kopkop College Curriculum requires teachers to use variety and effective strategies for teaching. Students work as individuals or in groups having in mind that some students learn best through activities such as reading on their own, working in small groups, talking, observing, drawing pictures, and finding out information for them. Most students use a mixture of these.

Students should be encouraged to think critically about what they are learning and to take responsibility for their learning. They should learn to teach each other and to learn from each other. They should know that learning has a serious purpose. They should enjoy using a wide range of resources and playing appropriate educational games. Students should also learn how to communicate well with others. They should also learn how to work things out for themselves, and how to get the information they need. They need to learn to think in ways that make sense, using their experiences, their knowledge, their intelligence and their imagination.

As well as learning skills and knowledge, students should develop appropriate attitudes and an understanding of important national and global issues. They should have pride in themselves, their own cultures and communities, as well as respect other people, their cultures and communities.

1. Inclusive Curriculum

The Kopkop College Curriculum is inclusive and designed to meet the needs of all students irrespective of their abilities, gender, geographic locations, cultural and language backgrounds, or their socio-economic backgrounds. The curriculum must be implemented by teachers in ways that are inclusive of all students starting at Early Childhood and at the primary level of schooling. Much can be achieved if parents, community leaders, churches and schools co-operate and communicate with each other.

As students learn in different ways, it is best to use a variety of teaching methods. It is also true that students will learn best from methods that are suitable to each one. To accommodate inclusiveness, teachers need to cater for the physical, social, cultural, emotional, and intellectual needs of their students. This can be achieved through using appropriately and carefully planned learning activities and strategies and thoughtful use of a teacher’s language of communication.

To be inclusive teachers at Kopkop College will need to ensure that all girls and boys have equal opportunities to participate. Teaching practices, including classroom organization and management, should ensure that girls and boys are able to participate fully in all learning activities. Equal participation will encourage students work towards achieving the goal of socialization, where they are encouraged to develop an obligation and opportunity to contribute. Through participation, individual creativity can be recognized and encouraged as contributing to social and national development, without losing sight of the principle of communal sharing.

Kopkop College acknowledges that participation is the key to social interaction and social mobility. It can also conserve and generate knowledge on cultural values for future generations. The diversity of opinion in Papua New Guinea will contribute towards the integral development of society as a whole provided the Melanesian principles of sharing and caring are applied.

The ways in which an individual chooses to interact with others will determine the role that individual plays in society. Through effective participation, an individual can play a role in the development of society, in overcoming fear, and oppression. The Kopkop College Curriculum will provide interesting contexts within which students develop and experience how they can participate in the development of their communities.

Students need to feel that they have something useful to offer to the community. Many students are shy and afraid of authority. They must be motivated to develop their skills fully and given opportunities to think for themselves. Kopkop College realizes that the teacher is a key motivator and a facilitator of learning. When teachers regard their role as being dispensers of knowledge and figures of authority, students do not participate effectively. Teachers need to place greater emphasis on problem solving skills and methods that encourage greater participation.

2. Relevance

The Kopkop College Curriculum must be relevant to the social, spiritual, and resource development needs of a community. This can be achieved by integrating teaching and learning situations that reflect the knowledge, skills, attitudes and spiritual values needed for integral human development. A relevant curriculum will prepare students for productive community living; integrate academic and practical education, and will provide ways to paid and self employment.

The Kopkop College Curriculum will enable teachers to support students learning by encouraging teaching in real life contexts. This means relating the skills and knowledge of subjects to real life situations. For example, mathematics can be used to study how to run a business, or appropriate technology can be applied to improve water supplies. People from the community could also be brought into the classroom to help teach a topic and support students undertaking useful projects in the community.

3. Student-centered learning

Student centered learning recognizes the fact that no two classes are alike and no two children are the same with respect to their needs. A teacher who uses a student centered approach will endeavor to create a classroom environment that will motivate students to discover new skills and knowledge. In such an environment, the teacher might focus on teaching students how to learn and help them discover relevant information. It is essential to teach students how to learn while at the same time teach students important contents. A student centered classroom will usually involve students working together in small groups using learning centers set up in the classroom while the teacher works more closely with students learning problems.

The Curriculum describes learning outcomes for all subjects. A student centered approach allows teachers to be flexible in determining the most effective ways to help all students achieve these learning outcomes.

4. Language Development Across  the Curriculum

Kopkop College Curriculum will provide substantial opportunities for development of language across the curriculum. Language development across the curriculum should be encouraged because all subject areas provide meaningful contexts for purpose learning. Some subjects have different language requirements such as, the vocabulary and language features of science, and the written and oral genres to narrate, explain, persuade, report and discuss the particular content of various subjects. The conventions and differences must be explicitly taught in relevant contexts across the primary curriculum starting from early childhood

The way language is used in Papua New Guinea’s schools, as adopted by Kopkop College is important. Language and culture are essential to each other. Students must be encouraged to use English in and out of the classrooms as it will result in stronger development of literacy in English language and also in stronger intellectual development. It will also help achieve relevance in the curriculum, higher achievement at school, and enable better preparation for life outside of school. It will contribute significantly to stronger cultural bonding, higher interest and motivation in students and parents, better community involvement, and fewer students leaving school early.

5. Lifelong learning

School is an important agent of a student’s education but learning continues throughout life. The initial experience that students have with the school curriculum is critical in encouraging them to continue learning throughout their lives. Going to school should be an enjoyable and satisfying experience for the students and should prepare them for life after school.

Students know many things when they come to school. They will learn many things outside of school and continue to learn after they leave school. Kopkop College Curriculum must build on what students already know. Teachers at Kopkop College should make use of this knowledge and skills. When students are learning new, unfamiliar contents, teachers should relate these new contents to what students already understand. This important learning will continue throughout life as students increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. Increasingly, students who leave school will look for opportunities to continue their education, and to return to school or some other educational or training institutions in order to improve their qualifications.

6. Multi-grade teaching

Multi-grade teaching refers to the scenario where there are students from more than one grade with one teacher. While Kopkop College Curriculum realizes the existence of such situation, all efforts are made to have one teacher to a class. In circumstances where a multi-grade class is encountered, all efforts must be made to assist teachers with resources and allowances. 

Multi-grade teaching involves;

  • using peer work, small or large cluster groups at different levels with the same class;
  • careful planning and organization to provide supervision and assistance during learning; and
  • Annual intakes in very small schools which previously only had intakes once every two or three.

Kopkop College Curriculum acknowledges that learning outcomes for each subject must be planned to accommodate multi-grade classes. The Thematic approach is appropriate to use with multi-grade classes as it requires the curriculum to be rearranged. Students of different grades can work side-by-side on similar themes, such as water, a feast, animals, and leadership. They will be learning at different levels of skills and understanding.

7. Thematic teaching and integration

Thematic teaching integrates subjects and reflects more closely the way students think. Integration is maximized when students appreciate the relationship between the body of knowledge introduced by a teacher, the application of that knowledge in everyday life and its underlying values. Whole language teaching is an important aspect of thematic approaches to teaching.

Kopkop College Curriculum is organized into subjects at each level of schooling. It is realized that generalist teachers will implement the curriculum using thematic and integrated approaches. These teachers will need to identify and organize the curriculum contents into themes that they have chosen for or with their classes. This means taking the syllabus documents for different subjects and reorganizing them to suit their chosen themes. A learning outcomes approach should enable this to occur. It is essential that teachers ensure all learning outcomes are achieved and monitored.